BIRDS of THE WORLD - An Online Bird Book


Order Apodiformes    Family Trochilidae

Hummingbirds are restricted to the Americas from southern Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, including the Caribbean. The majority of species occur in tropical and subtropical Central and South America. Hummingbirds are are among the smallest of birds. They can hover in mid-air by rapidly flapping their wings 12–90 times per second (depending on the species). They can also fly backwards, and are the only group of birds able to do so. They can fly at speeds exceeding 50 km/h (30 mi/h).

Hummingbirds drink nectar, a sweet liquid inside flowers. Nectar is a poor source of nutrients, so they also prey on insects and spiders, especially when feeding young. When hummingbirds feed on nectar, the bill is usually only opened slightly, allowing the tongue to dart out and into the interior of flowers. Most hummingbirds have bills that are long and straight or nearly so, but in some species the bill shape is adapted for specialized feeding. Hummingbirds do not spend all day flying, as the energy cost would be prohibitive; the majority of their activity consists simply of sitting or perching. With the exception of insects, hummingbirds while in flight have the highest metabolism of all animals, a necessity in order to support the rapid beating of their wings. Their heart rate can reach over 1000 beats per minute.

The hummingbirds are presented in 7 web pages:                 1) Barbthroat, Hermit, Jacobian, Sicklebill, Topaz
2) Carib, Fairy, Goldenthroat, Mango, Violetear, Visorbearer    3) Comet, Coquette, Firecrown, Sunangel, Sylph, Thorntail
4) Helmetcrest, Hillstar, Metaltail, Puffleg, Thornbill                5) Brilliant, Coronet, Inca, Starfrontlet, Sunbeam
6) Mountain-gem, Starthroat, Sheartail, Woodstar                  7) Emerald, Plumeleteer, Sabrewing, Woodnymph

Helmetcrest, Hillstar, Metaltail, Puffleg, Thornbill

Genus Chalcostigma

Thornbill,_Blue-mantled  Chalcostigma stanleyi  Found: Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru
The Blue-mantled Thornbill has mainly dark plumage. Male has mixture of blue on mantle.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2, 3) Nick Athanas - Peru  4) Francesco_Veronesi - Ecuador

Thornbill,_Bronze-tailed    Found: Columbia, Venezuela
The male Bronze-tailed Thornbill has rufous upperparts;  long green stripe on breast.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Neil_Martinez - Columbia  3) Nick Athanas
2, 3) Male

Thornbill,_Olivaceous  Chalcostigma olivaceum  Found: Bolivia, Peru
The Olivaceous Thornbill has mainly sooty-gray or  bronze-brown plumage. Male has  narrow gorget that is glittering green on chin becoming bluish on tip.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) John_Gould  3) Steve_Arlow
3) Male

Thornbill,_Rainbow-bearded  Chalcostigma herrani  Found: mainly Columbia, Ecuador; also Peru
The Rainbow-bearded Thornbill has mainly dark bronze-brown plumage; tawny or rufous crown; blue-black tail. Male has narrow beard-like gorget that is blue green on chin, shading to golden then red on tip.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Sergey_Pisarevskiy - Columbia   3) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Peter_Hawrylyshyn    4) Nick Athanas - Ecuador  5) Diego Rivera
2, 3) Female 4, 5) Malr

Thornbill,_Rufous-capped  Chalcostigma ruficeps  Found: Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru
The Rufous-capped Thornbill has mainly greenish plumage; short bill. Male has rufous crown; iridescent green gorget.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2, 3)  Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Daniel_Lane, Eduardo_Carrion_Letort
2) Female 3) Male

Genus Eriocnemis

Puffleg,_Black-breasted  Eriocnemis nigrivestis  Found: northwest Ecuado
The male Black-breasted Puffleg has mainly black plumage; dark blue tail coverts; violet-blue throat. Female has bronze-green upperparts; bluish-green rump; golden-green  underparts; pale blue chin.
Image by: 1, 2) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Roger_Ahlman, Steve_Blain
1) female  2) Male

Puffleg,_Black-thighed  Eriocnemis derbyi  Found:Columbia, Ecuador
The male Black-thighed Puffleg has green upperparts; dark wings, breast; dark-and-gold belly; gold rump. Female has green upperparts; dark wings; green and white underparts; gold rump.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2, 3) Alejandro_Tamayo   4) Nick_Athanas
2) Female 3) Male

Puffleg,_Blue-capped  Eriocnemis glaucopoides  Found: Argentina, Bolivia
The male Blue-capped Puffleg has mainly dark green plumage; blue forehead, throat; blue-black tail; dark wings; white  puff legs. Female has mainly pale orange underparts.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Andres_Teran  3) Nick Athanas - Argentina
2) Female 3) Male

Puffleg,_Colorful  Eriocnemis mirabilis  Found: west slope of the West Andes of Columbia
The male Colorful Puffleg has green upperparts; glittering green forehead, gorget; blue belly; red-and-gold undertail coverts; white leg puffs. Female has green upperparts; white median throat; indistinct reddish, golden, and bluish spots on belly, flanks and undertail,
Image by: 1, 2) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Nigel_Voaden

Puffleg,_Coppery-bellied  Eriocnemis cupreoventris  Found: Columbia, Venezuela
The Coppery-bellied Puffleg has green upperparts, upper-breast; coppery lower-breast, belly; white leg puffs;  some purple under tail.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Arthur_Grosset  3) Nick Athanas - Columbia

Puffleg,_Emerald-bellied  Eriocnemis aline  Found: Columbia, Ecuador, Peru
The Emerald-bellied Puffleg has green upperparts; white breast patch dotted with green; also bluish-emerald on some underparts; white leg puffs.
Image by: 1) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Jean_Paul_Perret in  Peru  2) Nick Athanas - Peru

Puffleg,_Glowing  Eriocnemis vestita  Found: Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, northern Peru, western Venezuela
The Glowing Puffleg has dark green upperparts; white leg puffs. Male has purple on throa. Female has buffy throat with purple dots; buffy breast spotted with green.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2, 3) Dick Daniels - Guango Lodge, Ecuador  4) Keith Bowers - Guango Lodge   5) Dave Curtis - Columbia  6, 7) Nick Athanas - Columbia

Puffleg,_Golden-breasted  Eriocnemis mosquera Found: olumbia, Ecuador
The Golden-breasted Puffleg has a glittering coppery breast; green rest of plumage.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Nick Athanas - Ecuador  3)   Michael Woodruff  4) Felix_Uribe - Columbia

Puffleg,_Gorgeted  Eriocnemis isabellae  Found: southwest Columbia
The male Gorgeted Puffleg has purple and green gorget; white leg puffs.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Alexander_Cortes

Puffleg,_Sapphire-vented  Eriocnemis luciani  Found:Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
The Sapphire-vented Puffleg has mainly glittering green plumage; purple vent; white leg puffs; blackish blue wings, tail.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Laura Gooch - Ecuador  3) Nick Athanas - Ecuador- 4) Michael_Woodruff  5) Joseph_Boone - Ecuador  6) Jerry_Oldenettel - Ecuador

Genus Haplophaedia

Puffleg,_Buff-thighed  Haplophaedia assimilis  Found: Bolivia, Perus
The Buff-thighed Puffleg has mainly green plumage; blue-black tail; creamy-buff to whitish leg puffs. Some subspecies have rufous leg puffs.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Nick Athanas - Peru

Puffleg,_Greenish  Haplophaedia aureliae  Found: Columbia, Ecuador
The Greenish Puffleg has has copper-green head; small whitish leg puffs; green, white, and gray scaling on the underparts.
Similar to: Hoary Puffleg. The Hoary Puffleg has more scaling on the underparts than the Greenish Puffleg.
Image by: 1) Chephas  2) Nick Athanas - Columbia  3) Francesco_Veronesi

Puffleg,_Hoary  Haplophaedia lugens  Found: Columbia, Ecuador
Similar to: Greenish Puffleg. The Hoary Puffleg has more scaling on the underparts than the Greenish Puffleg.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Keith_Bowers  3) Mike's_Birds

Genus  Lesbia
Found in: Andes of Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
The males trainbearers have very long tails.

Trainbearer,_Green-tailed  Lesbia nuna  Found: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
The Green-tailed Trainbearer has mainly green plumage; mostly green tail feathers. The male has a very long tail.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Korall  3) Nick Athanas - Columbia  4) Dick Daniels - Butterfly World in Florida

Trainbearer,_Black-tailed  Lesbia victoriae  Found: Columbia, Ecuador, Peru
The Black-tailed Trainbearer has mainly green plumage; mostly black tail feathers. The male has a very long tail.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Ryan_Candee  3) Lip_kee - Ecuador  4)

Genus Metallura
Metaltails are named for the metallic sheen to the tail, which is glittering green, purplish, or coppery, depending upon the species.

Metaltail,_Black  Metallura phoebe  Found: Peru
The Black Metaltail has mainly black plumage; coppery-red tail. Male has teal gorget; female has smaller gorget.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Nick Athanas

Metaltail,_Coppery  Metallura theresiae  Found: Peru
The Coppery Metaltail has mainly dark coppery plumage; narrow green gorget; dark blue upper tail covert. Female similar to male by duller.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Nick Athanas 3) David_Cook
2) Female 3) Male

Metaltail,_Fire-throated  Metallura eupogon  Found: Peru
The Fire-throated Metaltail mainly green plumage; reddish-orange throat.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Pete_Morris  Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Pete_Morris

Metaltail,_Neblina  Metallura odomae  Found: Ecuador, Peru
The Neblina Metaltail has bronze-greeh plumage; glittering green tail. Male has reddish-purple or rosy gorget. Female duller with whitish scales on underparts.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Nigel_Voaden  3) Nick Athanas
2, 3) Female 4) Male

Metaltail,_Perija  Metallura iracunda  Found: Perijá Mountains in Colombia and Venezuela.
Image by: 1) Cephas   2, 4) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online-Nestor - Timo_Mitzen, Trevor_Ellery  3) Andres_Cuervo 
2) Female 3, 4) Male

Metaltail,_Scaled  Metallura aeneocauda  Found: Bolivia, Peru
The Scaled Metaltail has green upperparts. Male has scaly looking underparts; females mainly tan underparts.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2, 3) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Joe_Tobias
2) Female 3) Male

Metaltail,_Tyrian  Metallura tyrianthina  Found: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
Image by:  1, - 6) Nick Athanas
1, 2, 3) Female 4, 5, 6) Male
1) M. t. quitensis   2) M. t. districta  3) M. t. smaragdinicollis   4) M. t. quitensis   5) M. t. districta  6) M. t. smaragdinicollis

Metaltail,_Violet-throated  Metallura baroni  Found: Ecuador
The Violet-throated Metaltail has are mainly bronzy-green plumage. Male has violet gorget.
Image by: 1) Cephas   2) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Nigel_Voaden  3, 4) Nick Athanas
2) Female 3, 4) Male

Metaltail,_Viridian  Metallura williami  Found: Columbia, Ecuador
The Viridian Metaltail has purple under-tail.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Alejandro_Aguayo  3, 4) Nick Athanas- Ecuador
2, 3) Female 4) Male

Genus Opisthoprora - 1 species

Avocetbill,_Mountain  Opisthoprora euryptera  Found: Columbia, Ecuador
The Mountain Avocetbill has green upperpats; dull streaked gray underparts; blackish flight feather; black bill with upturend tip.
Image by: 1) Cephas    2) Peter_Wendelken  3) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Peter_Hawrylyshyn

Genus Oreonympha - 1 species

Mountaineer,_Bearded  Oreonympha nobilis  Found: Peru
The Bearded Mountaineer has broad black collar; blue crown with black median stripe.
Image by: 1, 2) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Nestor_Ccacya_Baca, Fabrice_Schmitt
1) Female 2) Male

Genus Oreotrochilus
The Hillstars have long, slightly downcurved bills. Male has dull greenish upperparts; pale flanks; tail ususually dark with contrasting white pattern. Female duller with spotted whitish throat.

Hillstar,_Andean  Oreotrochilus estella  Found: mainly Argentina, Ecuador, Peru; also Chile
The male Andean Hillstar has mainly greenish-brown upperparts; bright emerald gorget; white underparts with dark belly stripe. Female has similar upperparts; gray-spotted throat; otherwise drab underparts.
Image by: 1) Chephas   2) Egil_Høgsås - Peru  3) Nick Athanas - Argentina  4) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Roger_Ahlman
3) Could also be White-sided Hillstar
2, 3) Female 4) Male

Hillstar,_Black-breasted  Oreotrochilus melanogaster  Found: Peru
The male Black-breasted Hillstar has sparkling green throat; black underparts bordered by creamy buff. Female has bronzy-copper upperparts; grayish-brown underparts.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Daniel_Lane, altabpe00 

Hillstar,_Ecuadorian  Oreotrochilus chimborazo  Found: mainly Ecuador; also Columbia
The male Ecuadorian Hillstar has a purple hood. Female has mainly green plumage.
Image by: 1, 3) Nick Athanas - Ecuador  3) Jerry_Oldenettel  4) Joseph_Boone - Ecuador
1, 2) Female  3, 4 Male

Hillstar,_Wedge-tailed  Oreotrochilus adela  Found: mainly Bolivia; also Argentina
The Wedge-tailed Hillstar has greenish-brown upperparts. Male has black center-underparts; borderd by chestnut; black tail. Female has orange tinged underparts with gray spotted throat pattern.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Ron_Knight - Argentina  3) Nick Athanas - Argentina

Hillstar,_White-sided  Oreotrochilus leucopleurus  Found: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile
The White-sided Hillstar has bronze-green upperparts; pale underparts. Male has blue-green collar, breast streak.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Opisska - Argentina  3) Flavio_Camus  4) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Sergio_Bitran
2, 3) Female 4) Male

Genus Oxypogon

Helmetcrest,_Buffy  Oxypogon stubelii  Found: on Nevado del Ruiz in the Central Andes of Colombia
The Buffy Helmetcrest has a pointed black and buffy crest; green-and-blued bear-like shaped gorge. . Female lacks beard and crest.
Image by: 1) Nick_Athanas
1, 2) Male

Helmetcrest,_Green-bearded  Oxypogon guerinii  Found: Columbia, Venezuela
The Green-bearded Helmetcrest has a pointed balck and white crest; white "beard" with green central stripe. Female lacks beard and crest.
Similar to: White-bearded Helmetcrest. The White-bearded Helmetcres thas a darker face than Green-bearded Helmetcrest.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Pedro Arturo Camargo Martínez  Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Jacob_Drucker  3) Juan José Arango 

Helmetcrest,_White-bearded  Oxypogon lindenii  Found: northwest Venezuela
The White-bearded Helmentcrest has pointed balck and white crest; white "beard" with narrow green central stripet; dull gray underparts. Female lacks beard and crest.
Similar to: Green-bearded Helmetcrest. The White-bearded Helmetcres thas a darker face than Green-bearded Helmetcres.
Image by: 1) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Hugo_Arnal

Genus Ramphomicron

Thornbill,_Black-backed  Ramphomicron dorsale  Found: Santa Marta mountains of Colombia
The Black-backed Thornbill has short bill; purplish-black tail. Male has mainly black upperparts. Female has bronze-green upperparts; whitish underparts; greens speckles on throat, flanks.
Image by: 1) Cornell_Univ's_Neotropical_Birds_Online - Diego_Calderon  2) Nick Athanas
1) Female 2) Male

Thornbill,_Purple-backed   Found: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela
The male Purple-backed Thornbill has brilliant purple upperparts; forked purplish-black tail. Female has green upperparts; whitish underparts with gree spots.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Ron_Knight  3, 4) Nick Athanas - Ecuador  5) Jei_Pov - Columbia

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